King Og of the Land of Bashan

One thing that fascinates me about the Word of God is that each time I look at it, I might see something different than before.  Within the historical narrative there are often snapshots of the future.  King of Bashan is no exception.  It’s as if the Lord has woven an intricate tapestry with numerous patterns that may or may not be seen unless we stop to meditate on the Scriptures. 

This week I noticed once again an interesting parallel in Deuteronomy.  This book begins with Moses speaking to the children of Israel in the 40th year of their wanderings.  It’s almost time for Moses to be gathered to his ancestors but he takes the time to remind the people of the past.

He reminded them of how God commanded them to go in and possess the land.  He told them they had multiplied tremendously and had been burdensome and quarrelsome.  This required Moses to set tribal leaders over them who were wise, knowledgeable, and understanding to judge cases that rose between them.

Next, Moses told them they had traveled from Horeb to Kadesh-Barnea, the mountains of the Amorites and had been commanded to take it because the Lord had given it to them.  Instead, they made a terrible error by sending twelve spies who brought back a mixed report.  This led them to lose faith in the Lord and rebel against Him.  They refused to believe that the Lord would fight the giants of the land so they could possess it.  As a result, the adults were not permitted to enter the land and died in the wilderness over a period of 40 years.  Only Joshua and Caleb were given that privilege of entering the Promised Land since they were the only ones who trusted in the Lord.

God’s people were dismayed to hear the judgment of the Lord so some decided to obey His original command but it was too late.  Against the Lord’s warning, some went up to fight the Amorites anyway and lost as the Lord said they would.  From that point on they wandered in the wilderness for 40 years yet they lacked nothing because the Lord provided for their needs.  During that time, they passed by both Mount Seir which belonged to the descendants of Esau and the Wilderness of Moab which belonged to the descendants of Lot.  The Israelites were commanded not to do battle with them because the Lord had not given the Israelites their land.

After 38 years they passed over the Valley of Zered and the Lord commanded them to cross over at Ar which was the boundary of Ammon and not to bother the Ammonites.  Previously, this was the land of the giants.  Since the Lord commanded them to cross the River Arnon and destroy Sihon the Amorite king of Heshbon and take his land, the Israelites contacted Sihon with the pretext that they were only going to pass through his land and buy food and water for their journey.  Sihon refused because God had hardened his spirit and made his heart obstinate in order to deliver him into the hands of the Israelites.  This is reminiscent of God hardening Pharaoh’s heart which led to his demise.

The people were told they had to begin to possess Sihon’s land in order to inherit it.  The people obeyed by destroying Sihon, his people, and the cities along the River Arnon.  In addition, they annihilated Og king of Bashan, his people, and cities.  All the livestock and spoil of the cities were taken as booty.

The land that was east of the Jordan River was then divided among the tribes of Reuben, Gad, and half of the tribe of Manasseh.  After the death of Moses, the people crossed the Jordan to take the Promised Land for the remaining tribes of Israel.

As I reflect on the last days of the Israelites wandering in the wilderness, it is obvious to me that we are nearing the end of the latter days.  Floods, tsunamis, earthquakes, and tornadoes are increasing in frequency.  Wars and rumors of wars are raging throughout the world.  Some nations seem to be seeking a pretext for war.  This is only the beginning of the birth pains.

As the future continues to unfold, we will eventually see a leader arise that will parallel with king Og who was the last of the giants.  The size of his bed indicated his great stature.   It was about 13 ½ feet long and 6 feet wide!  He was obviously head and shoulders above most men.  I suspect this is significant.

As the last shavuah (7 year period) approaches, a man of great stature will arise.  English translations vary but Daniel 7:20 describes the appearance of a little horn that sprang up among the ten horns on the fourth beast.  Daniel said he was greater, stouter, or more imposing than his fellows.  This reference to his size gives us quite a parallel between king Og and the coming Antichrist.

He also compares well with King Saul who stood head and shoulders taller than anyone else in Israel (1 Samuel 10:23).  As we know, the kingdom was taken away from King Saul and given to King David who represents Jesus, the King of kings and Lord of lords.  Isn’t it interesting that when an evil spirit came over Saul, he threw a spear at David to pin him to the wall but David dodged the spear twice?  Jesus was nailed to a cross, died, and was pierced with a spear to make sure He was dead but He rose from the dead.  In the future, the Antichrist will be controlled by the Dragon (Satan) yet he will be thrown alive into the lake of fire after the battle of Armageddon (Rev. 19:20) whereas King Saul died in battle.

The kingdom of Og was taken away by the Lord and given to the Israelites to possess and inherit.  In the same way, the dominion of the little horn will be taken away and given to the saints of the Most High; it will be an everlasting kingdom and all dominions will obey them (Daniel 7:26-27).

Now that’s not the end of the story.  King Og was destroyed but the Israelites still had to cross the Jordan River and wage war with the other peoples living in the Promised Land under the leadership of the Angel of the Lord in order to take their inheritance.   This process parallels the war of Gog and Magog which will take place when all the nations of the world come against Jerusalem at the end of Christ’s millennial reign.  After that, the Great White throne judgment will take place, what is old will pass away, and the Lord will make all things new.  Just as the people dwelled in peace during Solomon’s reign, the meek will dwell in peace on the new earth and be blessed!

Advertisements

Cities of Refuge

In Numbers 35, the people were to establish six cities of refuge for anyone who accidentally killed another person to flee to once they had entered the Promised Land.  These 6 cities plus an additional 42 cities were where the Levites lived.  Three were east of the Jordan River and three others were in the land of Canaan.  These cities were not only for the people of Israel to flee to for refuge but they were also for the foreigners and resident aliens among them.

According to Joshua 20:7-8, the cities of refuge were:

  • Kadesh in Galilee, in the mountains of Naphtali
  • Shechem in the mountains of Ephraim
  • Kirjath Arba (Hebron) in the mountains of Judah
  • Bezer in the wilderness on the plain, from the tribe of Reuben
  • Ramoth in Gilead, from the tribe of Gad
  • Golan in Bashan, from the tribe of Manasseh

These cities were not for murderers but for those who had unintentionally committed manslaughter.  In each case, it had to be determined whether or not the victim’s death was intentional or unintentional.  Obviously, an intentional death is always murder.  Whenever hostility, anger, or hatred resulted in a death of a person, God considers the death to be murder.  There is no such thing as temporary insanity or any other excuses for murder.  Most of the time, shoving someone or the use of some kind of implement during a struggle that results in death would be considered murder; although, there may be some bizarre occasions when that is not the case.

If the killer reaches the nearest city of refuge prior to a trial, the city leaders are to hear his side of the story, give him a place to stay, and protect him until his trial.  The killer’s own community is to judge between the killer and the next-of-kin avenger and prevent the avenger from killing the defendant if he is only found guilty of manslaughter so he can be safely returned to the city of refuge to which he originally fled. 

Any person found guilty of manslaughter is to stay in the city of refuge until the death of the High Priest.  After that, he may return to the land he owns without fear of death.  If the manslayer leaves the city of refuge prior to the death of the High Priest, the kinsman redeemer (next-of-kin avenger) may avenge his relative’s death upon meeting him without being guilty of the man’s blood.

It is possible for the kinsman redeemer to slay the killer prior to his standing trial before the community or before reaching a city of refuge.  If he makes it to the city of refuge and eventually goes to trial, the testimony of two witnesses is required in order to put the killer to death.  One witness is insufficient.  If the killer stands trial and is found guilty of murder, it is the responsibility of the kinsman redeemer to kill him.  A ransom can’t be accepted to spare his life or to allow him to return to his land prior to the death of the High Priest.

The blood of a murder victim defiles the land of Israel and only the blood of the murderer can atone (cover) it.  For this reason, the Lord commanded His people not to defile the land by committing murder.

We see various snapshots of Christ in the commandment regarding the cities of refuge. 

  • The cities themselves represent Jesus who is our refuge and strength and present help in time of trouble. 
  • Jesus hears our cries and knows the truth of our circumstances. 
  • The Lord is our strong tower, sword, and shield.  He protects us from those who seek to kill and destroy us.
  • There is no amount of money that can be paid to free someone from the penalty of death or to allow that person to spend eternity with the Lord because only blood can provide atonement.
  •  Jesus died for our sins including the sin of murder so we wouldn’t have to face the penalty of sin which is death.
  • Because of the death of Jesus our High Priest, we can repent of our sins and restore our broken relationship with Him. 
  • Since Jesus has done this for us, we are free to claim our inheritance in the Promised Land and to spend eternity with Him forever.

When it is time, Jesus, our Kinsman Redeemer will come again in the future to avenge the death of the martyrs!  The substitutionary blood of Christ and the blood of those who killed God’s people will fully atone the land of Israel.

Vengeance on the Midianites

Today we’ll see the significance of the vengeance on the Midianites that took place in Numbers 31 but before we do, let’s review some of the Scripture that precedes it. 

Numbers 27 reminds us that Moses could not lead the Israelites into the Promised Land because he didn’t trust the Lord or uphold His holiness before the people when he struck the rock to bring forth water instead of speaking to it.  Instead, the Lord told Moses to take Joshua the son of Nun and appoint him as leader over the community by laying hands on him, putting him in front of the High Priest and the whole community, commissioning him, and delegating authority to him so the people would obey him.

In Numbers 28, the Lord told Moses to order the people to bring the proper offerings at the proper times.  This included the daily offerings, the ones for the Sabbaths and the New Moons (at the first of each month), and those for the feasts of the Lord.  The people were also instructed to observe the feasts by having a holy convocation and by avoiding ordinary work.  These offerings were to be made in addition to the vows and voluntary offerings of the people.

One thing that we often overlook is the keeping of vows.  When vows are broken, guilt incurs.  If a girl makes a vow, it can be made null and void by her father; likewise the vow of a married woman can be made null and void by her husband he says he’s displeased with it when he first hears about it.  It is the man who bears the consequent guilt of the female’s unfulfilled vow.  If the father or husband doesn’t say anything, the girl or woman is obligated to keep her vow just as males are required to keep their vows.  Widow and divorcees are required to keep their vows as well. 

We must understand that the father and the husband represents Jesus who has borne the guilt of our broken vows as a husband or father does for his bride or child; however, His sacrifice is not a license to break our vows.  We should still take vows or promises seriously and not lightly.  Don’t ever promise anything you might not be able to keep because you will incur guilt.  Just think about how long term financial pledges are requested and made for church building programs and other things that are not always kept.  Some may have been broken for valid reasons such as a job loss or perhaps someone changed churches and stopped paying his pledge.  There is much guilt over these churches because pledges are not kept. 

Consider Ananias and Sapphira who did not keep their vow to give all of the proceeds of the sale of their land to the apostles.  They could have done what they wanted with the money but they must have promised to give all of it to the apostles.  Once the vow was made, they must have changed their mind concerning the amount of money to donate.  Since they lied to the Holy Spirit, their lives were cut short.  This happened after Christ’s ascension.  This should cause us to fear the Lord and it should keep us from lying to the Holy Spirit and to others.  Please understand that we are obligated to keep our pledges even though Jesus’ blood can cover our guilt.  If you’ve failed to honor a vow, you must do what it takes to fulfill it if possible. 

Now let’s turn our attention to Numbers 31.  After instructions for the fulfillment of vows, the Lord ordered Moses to gather an army in order to take vengeance on the Midianites.  The Lord told Moses that after this was accomplished, Moses would be gathered to his people.  Moses obeyed the Lord by ordering some of the men to be armed for war.  One thousand men from each tribe of Israel — a total of 12,000 men were sent with Phinehas the son of Eleazar the priest, the holy articles, and the signal trumpets.  Every Midianite male was killed but the people of Israel took all the women and children captive.  All the Midianite cities were plundered and set on fire. The captives, animals, and booty were brought to Moses but he became angry when he found out the women had been permitted to live.  He immediately he ordered all the women who had known a man intimately to be killed since they were responsible for leading the people into idolatry and sexual immorality.  He also ordered all the male children to be killed.  Most likely this was so they wouldn’t grow up to take revenge on behalf of their families.  On the other hand, the virgins were to be kept alive for the Israelites.

Moses instructed whoever had killed someone or touched a corpse was to remain outside the camp and be purified on the 3rd and 7th days, including men and captives.  In addition, all garments and everything of wood had to be purified with water.  Anything made of metal had to be passed through the fire in order to purity it.  After this, the plunder was divided among those who fought in the battle and the rest of the congregation.  Those who went to war gave part of their portion to the High Priest to be offered as a heave offering to the Lord.

When we read Numbers 31, we may wonder why the command to bring proper offerings at proper times in Numbers 28-29 was made between Joshua being appointed as a leader in Numbers 27 and the orders to take vengeance on the Midianites in Numbers 31.  Contemplate this:  The spring feasts showed us the work of the Messiah during His first time on earth – Jesus died as our Passover Lamb, He offered Himself to the Father as Firstfruits from the dead, and the Holy Spirit came to dwell in the hearts of believers.  This correlates to the time of Moses death and the beginning of Joshua’s leadership. 

The time period that begins with Moses’ death is parallel with the period between Jesus’ death and His return.  We can expect Christ to fulfill the fall feasts when He returns – Jesus will come at the last trumpet, the wicked will be judged during the battle of Armageddon, and Jesus will dwell with His people. These feasts will be celebrated during the millennial reign of Christ too because what is foreshadowed in the feasts will not be fully completed until after the Great White throne judgment takes place and the New Jerusalem comes down (Col. 2:16-17; Matt. 5:17-18).  This time period can be associated with the leadership of Joshua that began before vengeance was taken on the Midianites.

During the time period between Jesus’ death (compared to Moses’) and Jesus’ return (associated with Joshua’s leadership), we are to be living sacrifices holy and acceptable to God.  We are to do this daily, each month, and in every season.  As we do so we should celebrate the feasts of the Lord because they represent a shadow of things to come.  In addition, we should not fail to meet together to worship the Lord and enjoy our Sabbath rests.

The command to take vengeance on the Midianites is also a picture of what takes place during the fall feasts.  Note that the Midianite women were guilty of harlotry and therefore share a similarity with Babylon the Great, the Mother of Harlots.  The Midianite women had to be destroyed because of their harlotry.  Likewise, Babylon the Great must be destroyed.  The Midianite virgins were joined with the Israelites.  In a similar manner, Gentile believers have been grafted into the olive tree of Israel.  They are part of the bride of Christ which is to blameless and pure.  Balaam the son of Beor was killed in addition to the kings of Midian (Evi, Rekem, Tzur, Hur, and Reva) along with the others who were slain.  This parallels the beast of Revelation and the 10 kings who will hand over their power and authority to him and go to war against the Lamb of God.  After the battle of Armageddon, the enemies of the Lord will be plundered, gifts will be offered to the Lord, and the wedding supper of the Lamb will take place.  Those who will be there will be pure and dressed in clean robes of righteousness just like the Israelites purified themselves and their clothing after the war with the Midianites.  Just as Moses was gathered to his people in death after the war with the Midianites, Jesus who now lives to intercede for us will be gathered together with His people forever. 

The reason we know all these things will take place because the Lord has promised us they will happen and He always keeps His vows.

Formula for the Great Apostasy

The cause of the Great Apostasy is found in the book of Numbers.  Before we get to it, let’s review some history and see a few parallels along the way. 

According to Numbers 20, Miriam died in the first month in the Wilderness of Zin.  The Targum Pseudo-Jonathan, this took place on the 10th of Nisan.  In addition, the well that was given on account of Miriam’s innocence was hidden and there was no more water to drink.[i]  It was about this time, Moses and Aaron did not trust the Lord or cause Him to be regarded as holy before the people by striking the rock in order to bring forth water instead of speaking to the rock as the Lord had commanded.

After water came forth from the rock at Meribah, Moses sought permission from the king of Edom to pass through his country along the King’s Highway but the king refused and threatened to come against them with the sword if they did.  Instead of passing through Edom, the Israelites traveled from Kadesh to Mount Hor.  Aaron died on Mount Hor and his priestly garments were transferred to his son Eleazar.

As I thought about these things, the Lord showed me that Mary (also known as Miriam), the mother of Jesus was given a son who was/is the ultimate source of living water.  Many years later, Jesus stopped to rest at Jacob’s well where he told a Samaritan woman that if she had asked Him, He would have given her living water which could become a spring of water inside her that would well up into eternal life (John 4:5-14).  Unfortunately, not everyone trusted in Jesus nor did they regard Him as being holy.  Instead, the religious leaders convinced the Romans to strike the shepherd on Nisan 14th and the flock scattered as Jesus had prophesied in Matthew 26:31.  After Jesus rose from the dead and eventually ascended to heaven, He began His role as High Priest of the order of Melchizedek.

Back in the wilderness, the king of Arad, the Canaanite who dwelt in the South fought against Israel and took some of them prisoners.  Israel vowed to destroy them so the Lord gave the Canaanites into their hands.

The people then journeyed from Mount Hor around the land of Edom by the Way of the Red Sea.  The souls of the Israelites were discouraged and they began to complain about the lack of food and water.  It was at this time, the Lord sent the fiery serpents among them.  Since they confessed their sin, the Lord commanded Moses to erect a serpent on a pole.  Moses made a serpent of bronze and raised it up so that those who looked at it could be healed and live.

As we mentioned in a previous post, this was a picture of Christ being lifted up on the cross so that those who put their trust in Him would be healed and have eternal life.  This was not the promise of an easy life because believers endured persecution and martyrdom for their faith.

The Israelites continued their journey and camped at Oboth, Ije Abarim, the Valley of Zered, Arnon, and Beer.   The Lord gave them water in Beer where they sang for the well to spring up.  The Targum indicates the hidden well was restored to them through the merit of Miriam.[ii]  They traveled again and went to Mattanah, Nahaliel, Bamoth, and the top of Pisgah.  This time, Israel asked Sihon king of the Amorites for permission to pass through his land.  He not only denied them permission to pass through his land but also fought against them.

The water that sprang up in Beer can be compared to the Holy Spirit that fills both Jews and Gentiles who are scattered throughout the world when they believe in Jesus.  This fulfills what He promised in John 4:14.  Being filled with the Spirit doesn’t guarantee an easy life because believers still face persecution and sometimes martyrdom.

As our Old Testament account continues, Israel defeated the Amorites, took possession of their land, and dwelt in their cities.  They did the same to Og king of Bashan.  Later, the Israelites moved to the plains of Moab.  The Moabites were very afraid of the Israelites because of what had happened to the Amorites so their king, Balak the son of Zippor sent messengers with a diviner’s fee to Balaam the son of Beor to come and place a curse on the Israelites because he knew whoever Balaam cursed was cursed and whoever he blessed was blessed.  These messengers were elders from Moab and Midian.

Throughout the centuries, anti-Semitism has raised its ugly head.  Nations around the world contain people who curse and hate the Jews, some much more than others.  Some nations hate the Jews so much they pay huge sums of money for weapons that can be used to destroy them.  Perhaps this hate stems from the fear of Balaam’s prophecy, Esau’s relationship with Jacob, Ishmael’s relationship with Isaac, and/or something else.  It could be a combination of things.  Unfortunately, anti-Semitism takes place despite the blessings of knowledge, inventions, and other wonderful things the Jews have given the world.  Nations of the world cry for peace in Israel but some do not really want peace; they want to annihilate them. In the meantime, God continues to bless and protect Israel.

As our story continues in the book of Numbers, the men spent the night at Balaam’s place and that night God told Balaam not to go with these men and not to curse Israel because they are blessed.  The next morning Balaam told the men to return home by themselves because God refused to give him permission to go with them.   When Balak heard about Balaam’s response, he sent another delegation to request the same thing once again.  Balaam allowed them to stay the night and this time God told Balaam he could go if the men come to call him but he could only say what God told him to say.  The next morning Balaam got up and went with the princes of Moab.  God was angry because Balaam went so the Angel of the Lord became his adversary and stood in his way.  Balaam’s donkey saw the Angel of the Lord and tried to avoid Him 3 times but since Balaam didn’t see the Angel of the Lord, he hit his donkey on 3 occasions.  Finally, Balaam’s donkey actually had a conversation with Balaam until the Lord opened Balaam’s eyes so he could see the Angel of the Lord.  Balaam confessed his sin and offered to turn back; however, the Lord told him to go but only say what He told him to say.

When Balaam met with Balak, he warned him that he could only say what God gave him to say.  After offering 7 bulls and 7 rams, Balaam went to a desolate height where God spoke to him.  He looked out over the people from the hills and basically said Israel would be innumerable and that he wanted his death to be that of the righteous and like Israel’s.

Balaam offered another 7 bulls and 7 rams on the top of Pisgah.  The Lord commanded Balaam to bless Israel.  Balaam said the shout of a King will be among Israel and He would be as strong as a wild ox.  He also said Israel will arise like a lioness, devour its prey, and drink the blood of the slain before it lies down again.

Balak took Balaam to the top of Peor and offered another 7 bulls and 7 rams.  He didn’t use sorcery as before.  The Spirit of God came on him and re-emphasized that the tents of Israel would be beautiful and numerous, his king will be higher than Agag and his kingdom will be exalted.  Balaam said He will be brought out of Egypt, have the strength of a wild ox, consume the nations, destroy his enemies, and lie down like a lion.  Finally he added, “Blessed is he who blesses you, And cursed is he who curses you (Num. 24:9).”

This made Balak angry but Balaam advised him concerning what Israel will do to his people in the last days.  Balaam prophesied about the coming of the Messiah and the fate of Israel’s enemies.  As a child, Jesus came out of Egypt but He will eventually return at the sound of a trumpet and with a shout (1 Thess. 4:16).  Israel will be innumerable and strong as a wild ox.  Note this description is similar to the blessing given to Joseph in Deuteronomy 33:16-17.  In addition, Jesus is described as the lion of the tribe of Judah who will destroy Israel’s enemies before He sits back down to reign (Rev. 5:5).

The book of Numbers says Israel stayed in Acacia Grove and began to commit harlotry with the women of Moab.  This was not Israel’s idea.  This was Balaam’s idea.  The Targum Pseudo-Jonathan reveals Balaam’s advice to Balak, “And now, behold, I return to go to my people. Come, I will give thee counsel: Go, furnish tavern houses, and employ seductive women to sell food and drinks cheaply, and to bring this people together to eat and drink, and commit whoredom with them, that they may deny their God; then in a brief time will they be delivered into thy hand, and many of them fall.  Nevertheless, after this they will still have dominion over thy people at the end of the days.”[iii]

This is how Israel was joined with Baal of Peor.  The Lord responded by commanding Moses to hang the offending leaders of the people out in the sun.  So Moses told the judges of Israel to kill his men who had committed idolatry with Baal of Peor.  A plague had already started among the children of Israel and was stopped when Eleazar’s son Phinehas was zealous for the Lord and thrust a javelin through an Israelite man and Midianite women who had gone into the man’s tent.  There were 24,000 who died in that plague.  Only those who survived this plague finally entered the Promised Land.

The formula for the Great Apostasy is Balaam’s advice to Balak—idolatry and sexual immorality.   Basically, it’s assimilation with the world.  Remember, these were the people who had been bitten by the serpents in the wilderness.  They had looked to the bronze serpent on the pole and received new life.  They were what we would classify as believers in Christ today.  The only problem was that they embraced the doctrine of Balaam—assimilated with the world and it cost them their lives (2 Peter 2:15).

Believe it or not, the Great Apostasy is veiled in love for a false god and immoral relationships.  These will result in Jesus denying He knew us and telling us to go away because we were workers of lawlessness (Matt. 7:23).  

How can this be possible?  I’ve give two examples:

  • In the name of love, tolerance, and education for Muslims, the Koran is actually being read along with the Bible in some so-called Christian churches. 
  • In the name of love and tolerance, laypersons and church leaders openly live immoral sexual lifestyles as described in Leviticus 18 without being disciplined.  They are no different than non-believers.  They are like the people of Sodom. 

Listen, God has always balanced love with judgment.  He does not overlook sin.  His commands have not changed.  No one can serve two masters; everyone must choose one or the other.  There are no exceptions.  We must be zealous for the Lord like Phinehas and stop wickedness from entering our lives.  If we don’t, we will experience the final plagues of Revelation.

Be careful what you do out of love for others.  You have to know where to draw the line between right and wrong.  If you want to make it to the Promised Land, you can’t assimilate with the world.  Remember, some doctrines will lead you straight to hell.  Just because something sounds reasonable doesn’t make it right or acceptable to God.  You have to know God’s commands and not overlook them because you want to show love to the sinner. 

Don’t forget, when anyone is called out of an immoral lifestyle and comes to Christ, that person must forsake their sins of the flesh, make new relationships, and obey God.  It’s not always easy but it must be done.  Jesus’ sacrifice is not a license to sin; He will not be mocked!

Please, reject the doctrine of Balaam and come out of Babylon before it’s too late!  In addition, never curse Israel; always bless Israel.

 


[i] Targum Pseudo-Jonathan Numbers 19-22 http://targum.info/pj/pjnum19-22.htm

[ii] Ibid.

[iii] Targum Pseudo-Jonathan Numbers 22-25 http://targum.info/pj/pjnum22-25.htm